New research projects in FISA Here you will find the latest 20 projects that have been included in the Information System for Agriculture and Food Research (FISA). en-en Federal Office for Agriculture and Food TYPO3 Rapid identification of psychrophilic pseudomonads from raw milk using MALDI-TOF MS The presence of psychrotolerant microorganisms and their heat-stable enzymes in raw milk can cause bitterness, increased viscosity and gelation in milk and dairy products, leading to product spoilage and associated significant economic losses in commercial milk production and processing. This is caused to a considerable extent by heat-resistant bacterial peptidases, which are mainly produced by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. They show a very high heat resistance and are only insufficiently inactivated by UHT treatment. Therefore, the rapid and reliable identification of these bacteria in milk and dairy products and the tracing of their sources on the farm and in processing plants is of great importance. Using the mass spectrometric technique MALDI-TOF-MS spoilage bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, which are isolated from raw milk, are to be identified by their protein fingerprint. For this purpose, a database with reference spectra of Pseudomonas type strains has already been established. The aim of the project is to extend and complete the existing database with raw milk relevant Pseudomonas isolates to ensure the identification of product relevant strains. Therefore, raw milk isolates from defined farms will be collected and analysed by MALDI-TOF-MS. If the mass spectra of the isolates deviate significantly from the reference spectra of the type strains, the isolates are taxonomically identified using genome-based methods to complete the database. By this, the diversity of raw milk associated pseudomonads on species level will be analysed and possible farm specific "lead bacteria" identified. Furthermore, the spoilage potential of the raw milk isolates will be characterized by the determination of the proteolytic activity and the genetic organization of the relevant operon aprX-lipA2 and possible biomarkers will be identified using MALDI-TOF MS.

]]> Wed, 16 Dec 2020 07:06:40 +0000
Options for reducing ammonia emissions through microbial manure treatment and manure additives currently unavailable

]]> Tue, 15 Dec 2020 16:39:21 +0000
Genome analyses of food related microorganisms By using "next generation sequencing" techniques it is now possible to perform in-depth sequence analyses, including the characterization of individual food-relevant microorganisms (pathogens, spoilage agents, antibiotic resistance carriers, etc.) but also the description of complex food microbiota (for example along a food production line) as well as the transcription of relevant genes. These techniques are available to all working groups of the MRI and the data generated provide important information for a wide range of questions.
The analysis of this data is done with the help of adapted analysis programs. Various questions can be processed. These analysis and sequencing methods are always adapted to the current state of science and constantly expanded.

]]> Tue, 15 Dec 2020 08:07:49 +0000
Isolation and characterization of phages from dairies, dairy products and the environment and establishment of a strain collection The focus of this task is both on lactic acid bacteriophages, which are considered the main cause of bacterial fermentation disorders in milk processing, and on phages (biocontrol phages) that are capable of controlling pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp. and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g. ESBL, MRSA and AER) and spoilage bacteria (e.g. Pseudomonas spp. and Clostridium spp.). In this process, phages are isolated from dairies, dairy products and the environment (e.g. raw milk, sewage plants, food processing plants) and characterized with electron microscopic and molecular biological methods with respect to their morphology, host spectra, resistance properties, etc. They are catalogued and conserved in a bacteriophage strain collection.

]]> Tue, 15 Dec 2020 07:50:03 +0000
Use of phages for biocontrol of antibiotic-resistant and/or pathogenic bacteria and spoilage agents in food For a successful use of bacteriophages for biocontrol strategies, the genetic properties of the phage itself - mode of reproduction (lytic or lysogenic), genetic safety (absence of virulence or antibiotic resistance genes), infection cycle and progeny number) - and its efficacy in different food matrices, must be determined. The use of biocontrol phages (e.g. against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and pseudomonas) will be tested in model experiments or on a pilot plant scale, and the conditions for successful use in suitable food products (RTE products such as ready-to-eat salads, sprouts, pre-cooked meat and spreadable raw sausage) will be defined. The persistence and activity of biocontrol phage on food and surfaces will be investigated and recorded.

]]> Tue, 15 Dec 2020 07:43:46 +0000
Effect of food processing on the bioaccessibility of nutrients. Investigations with the tiny-TIM system In vitro-gastrointestinal models such as the tiny-TIM (TNO Intestinal Model) system provide the opportunity to simulate sub-processes of gastrointestinal digestion similar to conditions in humans. Besides examining the release of nutrients from the food matrix (individual products up to complex meals), it is possible to estimate the amount of a nutrient available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Within the project, this system is being applied to investigate the digestibility and bioaccessibility of important macro and micronutrients from various food matrices produced within the several inter-institutional projects. In this context, alternative protein sources (e.g. insect flour) but also products from projects such as aronia pomace-enriched starch extrudates or oleogels are investigated initially. The literature and our own results showed that food processing can have a significant impact on food digestibility and nutrient bioaccessibility. Therefore, the influence of processing methods and their parameters such as the thermal treatment or extrusion of corn starch/aronia pomace or of insect products on digestibility and biaccessiblity will be investigated.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 13:15:24 +0000
Health effects of increased legume consumption in humans Pulses increase satiety, improve glycaemic control and cholesterol concentrations, and reduce body weight. Therefore, pulses could contribute to diets preventing overweight and associated diseases. Food based dietary guidelines across Europe recommend a higher intake of pulses. However, pulse consumption in European countries and particularly in Germany is low. Convenient pulse products aiming to increase consumer acceptance have been brought to the market, without evidence regarding their health effects. We hypothesize that regular consumption of innovative, convenient pulse products is equally beneficial for health as traditional pulse dishes.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 12:48:22 +0000
gern survey: Health and nutrition survey in Germany Assessment of representative data on food consumption, nutrient intake, further nutritional behaviour as well as nutritional status of the German population. Evaluation of the nutritional status of the population on the basis of measurement data of selected nutrients (biomarkers) in order to precisely determine the actual nutrient supply and the needs-based coverage of the nutrient requirements of the population in Germany or certain population groups. Identification and characterisation of population groups with an insufficient supply of nutrients, considering additional factors such as physical activity.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 12:29:33 +0000
PROMISE Study - PRedictors linking Obesity and gut MIcrobiomE Key drivers of obesity include overconsumption of energy-dense, and nutrient-poor foods, which have a profound impact on the composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. Alterations to the microbiome may play a critical role in obesity by affecting energy extraction from food and subsequent energy metabolism and fat storage. The PROMISE study characterizes in particular the gut microbiome as well as the plasma and urine metabolome in 2 populations with different metabolic disease risk (Healthy Pacific and New Zealand European women aged between 18 and 45 years) and different body fat profiles (normal and obese). It investigates (1) the role of gut microbiome composition and functionality in obesity, (2) the interactions between dietary intake, eating behaviour, taste perception, sleep and physical activity, and their impact on the gut microbiome, and (3) associations between biomarkers of biological and behavioural risk factors referred to above and specific body fat profiles. This study provides data enabling the identification of distinct roles for diet, taste perception, sleep, and physical activity in women with different body fat profiles in modifying the gut microbiome and its impact on obesity and metabolic health. It will advance the understanding of the etiology of obesity and guide future prevention strategies involving specific dietary and microbiota-based approaches.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 12:04:34 +0000
Nutritional evaluation of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners The average daily intake of sugars (glucose and fructose containing sugars) in Germany exceeds the recommended maximum intake recommended by nutrition societies. Excessive sugar consumption is associated with the development of overweight and its comorbidities. Due to these undesirable effects, the National Reduction and Innovation Strategy: Less sugar, fat and salt in ready-made products aims to reduce glucose and fructose containing sugars in foods. Alternative sweeteners are developed to be used in food production processes which mimic the taste of sugar and/or its physical and chemical properties for food production while contributing no or little energy upon consumption in humans. Nutritional and physiological effects of alternative sweeteners especially novel sweeteners are not well understood. This project focuses on the evaluation of effects of established and new sweeteners on human health.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 11:23:57 +0000
Influence of dietary pulses on gut barrier function A impaired gut barrier function is associated with various diseases such as obesity-associated inflammation or inflammatory bowel diseases. Dietary pulses could influence gut barrier function, due to their nutrient composition (high content of fiber, phytochemicals and protein). Even though epidemiological studies suggest that pulse consumption is associated with beneficial health effects, the meachnisms of action remain unkown. The aim of this project is to investigate the impact of dietary pulses on gut barrier function. Therefore bioactive fractions as well as their meachnisms of action will be identified. Based on the results of this project innovative, health-promoting pulse products can be developed.

Graf D, Monk JM, Lepp D, Wu W, McGillis L, Roberton K, Brummer Y, Tosh SM, Power KA. (2019): Cooked Red Lentils Dose-Dependently Modulate the Colonic Microenvironment in Healthy C57Bl/6 Male Mice. Nutrients. 2019 Aug 9;11(8). pii: E1853. doi: 10.3390/nu11081853.
Graf D, Monk JM, Wu W, Wellings HR, Robinson LE, Power KA (2019): Red lentil supplementation reduces the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in C57BL/6 male mice. Journal of Functional Foods Volume 64, January 2020, 103625

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 08:55:27 +0000
Impact of diet and exercise intensity on metabolic effects Exercise intensity has an important impact on fitness and health. In this project we will investigate different exercise intensities on human metabolism under controlled diet and standardised conditions by means of metabolic profiling and pathway analysis to finally explore their relevance in human disease prevention.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 08:47:21 +0000
Comparision of different methodogical approaches in the personalized nutrition Personalized nutrition (PN) is an emerging field, getting increased focus in nutritional research as well as in nutrition industry. One can observe that the concept of PN is used inconsistently throughout the literature, revealing different definitions and understandings of what PN means. The aim of this project is to review, compare and evaluate, which approaches are currently available in the context of PN, particularly with regard to the use of data and the underlying statistical modelling. In this way, we can conclude what can or cannot realistically be expected from the PN.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 07:46:45 +0000
Impact of thermal food processing on energy utilisation in humans The impact of thermal processing of raw foods on energy harvest and utilisation is not fully understood. Processes like protein denaturation or the production of resistant starches are expected to affect the energy value of a meal. Calculation of the energy content by merely using the Atwater system might underestimate caloric values. Perturbation of the equilibrium of energy intake and energy expenditure may lead to weight gain and result in obesity. In view of dietary advice given to obese dieters, it should be clearly determined to what extent thermal processing influences the caloric load of a meal. So far, only few studies, mainly conducted in animals, suggest that the gut microbiome might be a key factor for energy harvest and thus affecting energy balance. In addition, it is currently not known if the intestinal microbiome is affected by the ingestion of raw vs. thermally-processed foods. Further, the role of the food-associated microbiome, which may no longer be present after heating and processing, regarding the composition of the gut microbiota has not been investigated either. The core element of the project will be the collection of samples and data in a highly-monitored cross-over, in-patient intervention study. Participants will receive one of two tightly controlled diets that include identical food components either exclusively in a raw state or thermally processed. In order to establish a complete energy balance, energy intake will be determined by direct measurement of the energy content of each meal by bomb calorimetry while accounting for energy loss by direct calorimetry of stools and urine (collected throughout both entire intervention periods). Complementing energy expenditure measurements will also include the Doubly Labeled Water method and indirect calorimetry; with continuous measurement of body core temperature as an add-on. Physical activity of participants will be monitored and anthropometric data will include data on body fat/lean body mass distribution. In addition, meals will be characterized by food metabolomics, and the food-associated microbiome will also be studied. Feces will be collected at intervals throughout both entire intervention periods, allowing for monitoring of the intestinal microbiota during the intervention.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 07:36:52 +0000
Implementation and Standardization of Microbiota Analyses The physiological impact of human nutrition is strongly modulated by the microorganisms which are mainly living in our large intestine (gut microbiota). Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interactions between nutrition, physiology and microbiota. To study these interactions many novel methods are used and constantly further developed. The obtained results are highly dependent of the used method. For this reason we work in close interaction with other institutes (MRI-Workgroup “food-associated and intestinal microbiota”) to establish new methods and standard operating procedures (SOP). First aim of this project is the best use of the available technologies and the establishement of high quality standards in all concerned laboratories at the the MRI. A second goal is the identification of the variations of the microbiota within the same person along time and between people of a given population, as a preliminary information to design further studies, in which the microbiota is of main interest.

Noemi Hillebrandt: „Beobachtung der Variabilität des humanen intestinalen Mikrobioms anhand der Veränderung biologischer und technischer Einflussgrößen“, 2019, Bachelorarbeit, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie.

Zarah Janda: „Quantification of the Intestinal Human Microbiome using Spike-In Bacteria”, 2020, Bachelorarbeit, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 07:27:08 +0000
miRNA – their role as modulators of metabolic effects miRNAs are non-coding small RNA molecules. They modulate gene expression in several tissues through binding to complementary mRNAs. miRNAs are produced in various cell types (e.g. skeletal muscle after physical activity) and secreted into the circulation, which enables them to exert metabolic effects. Moreover, they can be ingested via dietary sources. It is discussed that miRNAs as modulators of metabolic effects can contribute to sustaining human health, e.g. through effects on immune cell functions or glucose metabolism. The objective of the project is to examine the effects of physical activity and diet on miRNA expression in human plasma samples under controlled and standardized conditions to better understand health sustaining effects of physical activity.

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 07:19:44 +0000
Metabolic markers of diet and physical activity in humans The impact of short and long term physical activity on the human metabolom is investigated. Data from human intervention studies focussing on acute and regular physical activity/fitness are analysed. We aim to identify activity associated metabolite profiles and pathways to explore their relevance in human disease prevention.

Kistner S, Rist MJ, Döring M, Dörr C, Neumann R, Härtel S, Bub A (2020) An NMR-Based Approach to Identify Urinary Metabolites Associated with Acute Physical Exercise and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Humans—Results of the KarMeN Study. Metabolites 2020, 10, 212; doi:10.3390/metabo10050212.
Kistner S, Rist MJ, Krüger R, Döring M, Schlechtweg S, Bub, A (2019). High-Intensity Interval Training Decreases Resting Urinary Hypoxanthine Concentration in Young Active Men—A Metabolomic Approach. Metabolites, 9 (7), Art.Nr. 137. doi:10.3390/metabo9070137
Armbruster M, Rist MJ, Frommherz L, Weinert C, Mack C, Roth A, Bunzel D, Krüger R, Kulling S, Watzl B, Bub A (2018) Metabolite profiles evaluated, according to sex, do not predict resting energy expenditure and lean body mass in healthy non-obese subjects, Eur J Nutr. 2018 June 29. doi:10.1007/s00394-018-1767-1
Biniaminov N, Bandt S, Roth A, Härtel S, Neumann R, Bub A (2018) Irisin, Physical Activity and Fitness Status in Healthy Humans: no Association under Resting Conditions in a Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 30; 13(1):e0189254. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189254. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29381744

]]> Fri, 11 Dec 2020 07:11:33 +0000
Development and validation of a quality assurance system for mobile NIRS systems for measuring nutrient concentrations in liquid farm manure The use of NIRS sensors for mobile nutrient analysis on application equipment for liquid organic fertilizers requires quality assurance (QA) for both new and used equipment. This is a requirement of the Länder authorities responsible according to fertilizer law, in order to be able to authorize the use of NIR sensors for documentation purposes within the framework of legal regulations (e.g. fertilizer ordinance). While recognition in accordance with the test procedure of the DLG (German Agricultural Society) is a prerequisite for new devices, there is no quality assurance for devices in use yet. The aim of NIRS-QS is to define the requirements for such quality assurance, to develop and test the necessary procedural steps and to establish a practice-oriented approach in the form of procedural and work instructions as well as multimedia training forms for users.

]]> Wed, 09 Dec 2020 09:43:21 +0000
Development and validation of a quality assurance system for mobile NIRS systems for measuring nutrient concentrations in liquid farm manures The use of NIR sensors for on-the-go nutrient analysis on slurry tankers requires reliable quality assurance (QA) systems for new as well as for devices already in use. This is a requirement of the federal state authorities responsible for all aspects related to use of fertilizers in order to be able to permit the use of NIR sensors for documentation purposes within the framework of legal regulations (e.g. the German fertilizer ordinance). While for new NIR sensors a quality check according to the DLG test procedure is a prerequisite for market access, there is no QA system available for those devices already in use. The aim of the NIRS-QS project is (1) to define the requirements for such a QA system, (2) to develop and test the necessary procedural steps and (3) to establish a hands-on approach for teaching materials and working instructions as well as multimedia training materials for users.

]]> Wed, 09 Dec 2020 09:41:36 +0000
Development and validation of a quality assurance system for mobile NIRS systems for measuring nutrient concentrations in liquid farm manures Farmers and contractors expect that the mobile NIRS analysis of liquid organic fertilizers will be approved in order to fulfil the documentation requirements under the new German fertilizer ordinance and the organic fertilizer shipment regulation. This requires the development of a test procedure for NIRS sensors in use for the application of liquid fertilizers in order to be able to permanently ensure the quality of the measuring accuracy and the repeatability. With the implementation of the project, the basis for a nationwide approval of NIRS sensors for the determination of the nutrient content in liquid fertilizers is to be achieved. A system will be established in which the devices will be inspected at regular intervals (two to three years) similar to the regular check of field sprayers. The approval is the responsibility of the respective Länder services responsible for the fertilizer ordinance. In order to achieve the quickest possible implementation after project completion, the most important country departments, in addition to representatives from science and consulting, are already involved in the discussion of results during project implementation, and possible application strategies are discussed. With the implementation of the project, the NIRS tool will serve the users and marketers of liquid fertilizers to record the nutrient contents in liquid fertilizers simply but scientifically soundly. At the same time, the project will help to improve the accuracy of the quantities of nutrients applied through continuous real-time analysis and to provide a transparent view of the flow of goods when marketing fertilizers.

]]> Wed, 09 Dec 2020 09:37:31 +0000